This page guides you through the types of scholarly sources, search skills and strategies you must know to conduct research activities. In addition, it also includes how to add quotations and references in your papers as well as guidance on various library services.
Everything here is covered by off-line library classes. In library classes, you can gain more effective skills and useful knowledge. 🙂
1. Acquiring Background Information
If you start to search for materials in unfamiliar topics, it’s important to acquire background information before you search. When searching with keywords that come to mind vaguely, it’s hard to figure out what information you need. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the basic concepts and definitions of the topic through books or reference materials before searching.
2. Extracting Search Keywords
It can also be difficult to choose appropriate search keywords of unfamiliar topics. If you have acquired background information through books or reference materials, you can extract keywords(e.g. academic terms) from the resources. In addition, you can also catch useful keywords from abstract & index databases.
3. Selecting Search Keywords
The search results may vary depending on which search keywords are used. Therefore, the most important thing in the information search process is the selection of search keywords.
When you select search keywords, you need to check the synonyms of the words. You also need to identify hypernyms and hyponyms of the words. For example, when searching for information on ‘college student’s leisure life’, you can narrow down search results by using hyponyms of “college student” such as ‘exchange student’, ‘foreign student,’ and ‘enrolled student.’
4. Determining Search Scope
If you start searching with keywords that are too specific from the beginning, the number of search results may be too small. If you’re unfamiliar with the topic of the material you’re looking for, we recommend that you narrow down your search step by step.
5. Analyzing search results
You can extract other search keywords from the articles you searched for. A new search may be made by referring to the literature referenced by the articles or the literature cited by them.
▶ Useful document: 연구 및 레포트 작성을 위한 6단계 레시피(Source: EBSCOhost)
The ‘Academic materials’ refer to books, journals, databases, etc. provided by libraries. If you know what academic materials you need and how to use them, you can conduct research more efficiently.
▶ Related document(PDF)
A+ 받는 지름길(1) 교육자료(배포용)
▶ How to search and use books: Library website > Keywords search (Printed books: Use after checking the location of the bookshelf and availability of loans, e-Books: Click on text link URL)
2. Review article
Although Wikipedia is a famous online encyclopedia, it is difficult to fully trust the accuracy and quality of content that anyone can freely write and correct. So why don’t you use an academic encyclopedia as a reference for your research?
Explore the fact-checked online encyclopedia from Encyclopedia Britannica with hundreds of thousands of objective articles, biographies, videos, and images.
▶ Online resources(Journals&Databases) provided by UNIST Library: Library Website > E-Resources > Databases
2. Conference proceeding
▶ Patent Search: WIPS ON (www.wipson.com) / Available after creating a personal account (Use UNIST mail account within campus)
▶ Standard Search: e-나라 표준인증(https://standard.go.kr/)
5. Thesis or dissertation
▶ Search and browse the UNIST theses & dissertations: ScholarWorks@UNIST
Maybe you will search the Library website, not Google, when you want to use the Library’s books. So if you know which sources you need and decide which sources to find, then you should choose where to find them..
▶ Related documents (PDF)
A+ 받는 지름길(1) 교육자료(배포용) 책 이용 처음부터 끝까지 교육 PPT 논문 검색 A-Z(배부용) Google Scholar Guide(배부용)
If you can’t find the book you need in the Library, you can request following services: Recommend a Purchase / Inter Library Loan / Document Delivery Service
1. How to Search
① Access the Library website > Enter search keywords for Search All > Select the appropriate item from the search results
② Access the Library website > SEARCH & BROWSE > Books, Media
③ Check the search results: e-Books(status: full text available), printed books(status: available at)
④ Refine the search results
2. How to use printed books: SEARCH & BROWSE > Check bookshelf location, call Number, availability of Loans
Call numbers are addresses which help us locate materials in the Library.
The UNIST Library categorizes books by subjects applying LC classifications (LCC: Library of Congress Classification).
The LC classifications allows us to further divide topics in the field of science and technology.
To reserve a book: Request on the Library catalog >> Receive a notification e-mail or SMS when the book returned or ready. Visit 1F 『Smart Library』 to check-out the book.
If you won’t check-out the requested book within a fixed period of time (e.g. 3 days), the book will be delivered to the next-ranked user who made reservation.
The due date of the book cannot be extended if someone else reserved the book you checked out.
3. How to use e-books
The library provides 4 Korean e-book services.
To access e-Book websites: Library website > E-RESOURCES > E-Books
– for PC: Access after library website login
– for Mobile: To use mobile application you will need at least one access from your computer to each e-book webpage (ID: student number, PW: date of birth, YY/MM/DD)
■ eBook (PDF) > To download PDF, click ‘View PDF’ on the webpage of each chapter. (Only purchased titles available)
■ eBook (EBSCO) > Available view online but downloading PDF is limited to only some pages in allowed maximum pages per title.
▶ More information: Library Website > E-Resources > E-Books
Scholarly or peer-reviewed journals have collections of articles written by experts in academic or professional fields. Journals are excellent for finding out what has been studied or researched on a topic, and to find bibliographies that point to other relevant sources of information.
2. How to Search & Use
There are 3 main ways to use journals and articles: search on journal sites and databases, search on Google Scholar, and search on library websites. If the Library does not subscribe to the journals and databases you want to use, apply for the following service: ‘Recommend a Purchase/Inter Library Loan/Document Delivery Service
① Access the Library website > Enter search keywords for Search All > Select the appropriate item from the search results (Articles, e-Resources)
② Refine the search results: Resource Type > Articles
③ Browse the article
– a paper contained in Science, volume 330, issue 6005, pages 762-3
– [Peer Reviewed Journal] a paper reviewed by the editors
– Full text available
– Journals: E-RESOURCES > E-Journals
You can browse the Library website for journals serviced by the Library and access the journal sites that provide full text of the articles. Use this page to read the latest or existing articles in a particular journal.
– Databases: E-RESOURCES > Databases
A database is a academic online service that allows you to search for the latest research findings in a single platform. Depending on the type of data provided, the database can be divided into full-text DB, citation index DB, and specialized DB. Choose the type of database you prefer and search.
▶ For more information about Databases: Library Website > E-Resources > Databases
e.g. Elsevier ScienceDirect, Wiley, Springer, Nature
e. g. EBSCOhost, ProQuest Central
e.g. Web of Science, Scopus
A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author’s research and findings. If the library does not provided theses you want to use, apply for the following service: ‘Recommend a Purchase/Inter Library Loan/Document Delivery Service’
1. UNIST Theses & Dissertations
The ScholarWorks@UNIST is an institutional repository which collects, preserves and disseminates UNIST’s research outputs. It aims to increase the accessibility and visibility of UNIST researchers and their research outputs, and to foster opportunities for collaboration.
① Access the Library website > Enter search keywords for Search All > Select the appropriate item from the search results (Books & Medias)
② Refine the search results: Resource Type > Dissertations
③ How to use: Printed copy (not loanable, only available on the 3rd floor), Online version (depends on author’s permission to make public, there may be items that are not available)
2. How to search domestic theses & dissertations
– Integrated search of domestic master’s and doctoral dissertations is available
– Available after personal membership and login (Institution: UNIST, 울산과학기술원)
– Full-text available after personal membership and login (Institution: UNIST, 울산과학기술원)
– Available on the PC for the Digital Library of National Assembly on the 2nd floor (Location: near the elevators)
3. How to search foreign theses & dissertations
– Available from 4 p.m. to 9 a.m. the next day via RISS
Digital Dissertations on Demand
ProQuest Dissertations &Theses
– Search and download available for Ph.D. dissertations from major British universities
– Free service: Electronic item(e.g. PDF)
– Paid service: Request digitization of physical items(e.g. CD, DVD) or postal request
DSpace@MIT is a service of the MIT Libraries to provide MIT faculty, researchers and their supporting communities stable, long-term storage for their digital research and teaching output and to maximize exposure of their content to a world audience. DSpace@MIT content includes conference papers, images, peer-reviewed scholarly articles, preprints, technical reports, theses, working papers, research datasets and more. This collection of more than 90,000 high-quality works is recognized as among the world’s premier scholarly repositories and receives, on average, more than 1 million downloads per month.
Reference materials usually refer to dictionaries, encyclopedias, and handbooks. References are useful at the beginning of the research because they contain background knowledge on the subject. If you want to use reference, Search and browse the Library website. If the library does not provided items you want to use, apply for the following service: ‘Recommend a Purchase/Inter Library Loan/Document Delivery Service’
1. Types of references
2. How to use
▶ Related document (PDF)
A+ 받는 지름길(1) 교육자료(배포용) 논문 검색 A-Z(배부용) Google Scholar Guide(배부용) Web of Science 이용가이드Scopus 이용가이드
You can search all kinds of academic materials on the Library website. While search results from search engines such as Google and Naver may include data that have not been evaluated for academic reliability and usefulness, items found on library websites are highly reliable.
All items serviced by the Library can be searched through the search window on the main screen of the Library website.
If you want to search for a specific type of item, use the ‘SEARCH & BROWSE’ and ‘E-RESOURCES’ menus at the top of the screen.
2. Browse the search results
If you search in the integrated search box of the Library website, you will find the Library resources containing the keywords you entered.
If you want to refine the type of items you can use the ‘Search for’ tab in the search box or the ‘Resource Type’ tab on the right. In addition, the language and the year of publication can be limited.
Materials that can be serviced in physical form such as printed books, magazines, and DVDs are seen as ‘Available at ….’ ‘Available’ means available to use. Depending on the bookshelf location, some materials may be available to read on site but cannot be loaned.
Electronic materials such as e-books, articles are seen as ‘Full text available.’ Click this phrase to access a page where you can view full-text of the search result.
The type of material is displayed above the title of the item as ‘BOOK,’ ‘JOURNAL,’ ‘BOOK CHAPTER,’ etc.
3. Refine the search results
You can easily refine your search results by using various facets on the left side of the search result page.
Search results are basically sorted by relevance and can be sorted by publication date, author, and title as needed.
If you want to find books related to ‘Organic Chemistry,’ for instance you can refine your search results by: ① Resource Type > Book, ② Show only > Available in the Library. If you use the second facet to refine your search results, ‘printed books on loan’ will be excluded from the search results and only the currently available items will be shown in the search results.
Google Scholar is a search engine that allows you to search the various scholarly web pages existing on the Web in an integrated way.
Google Scholar allows users to search for academic papers, academic papers, books, green, and patents, and is a highly preferred search tool because it is easy to obtain full-texts.
★ Are all items searched on Google Scholar free of charge? ★
Full-texts of the literature you searched for in Google Scholar is available because the Library subscribes to the material and serves it. 😉
1. Google Scholar basics
To save an article in ‘My Library,’ click the star icon below the search result. (login needed);
A service that notifies you when a new item is indexed in Google Scholar when you set a keyword or search term that you are interested in;
Set library links (library registration serving the full-text), languages, search results.
Setting should be done while the browser is not in secret mode. If you set it up in secret mode and close the browser window, the changes will be reset.
Check your language if you want to search only for materials in a specific language;
Full-text can be accessed through the Library website in conjunction with the Link Resolve service.
3. Search (basic, advanced)
The basic search conditions for Google Scholar are as follows: if the search keyword you entered is contained anywhere in the text, it will be included in the search results. When searching in multiple keywords, importance is evaluated according to the order entered.
Example: 3D AND printing
Example: “theory of relativity”
Examples: VR OR virtual reality
Example: jobs ‑apple
4. Browse the search results
Google Scholar’s search results are sorted by default in a relevant order. Also, the publisher, author, and cited times are reflected in the priority of search results.
5. How to use a article not subscribed to the Library
① Settings – Library link – ‘Find it @ UNIST’ setting
② Clink on ‘Find it @ UNIST’
③ Click on ‘Making Requests’
④ Click on ‘Request’ after checking the bibliography of the article
Restriction on the use of DDS if you don’t get it at least 3 times or more per year.
Databases are collections of scholarly materials which are very useful tools for researchers to search and find relevant resources for their literature study. It contains bibliographical information or full text of journal articles, conference proceedings, magazines, and reports in specific subjects.
1. Citation index database: SCOPUS, Web of Science
① When you want to know which of the many articles is qualitatively superior or what trends are in the field.
Scopus and Web of Science provide searches of articles in core journals published around the world. If you don’t know much about research topics or don’t know which articles to read, try Scopus or Web of Science. You can search and browse for a useful information on a topic or subject keyword.
② When you want to sort or limit your search results in order of cited times.
Google Scholar allows you to sort search results by date and relevance only, but citation index DB can sort search results using a variety of facets. You can sort the search results based on the number of cited times to find out which papers are cited a lot.
③ When you want to refine your search results to more detail.
You can browse without search results of type or condition that you do not need by refining the topic, publication date, and the type of items.
2. Domestic academic databases
3. Statistics databases
※ There should be no space between the search operator and the search term.
1. Why is it important to acknowledge someone else’s work?
If you use other people’s ideas or papers for your work, you must indicate the source. Plagiarism is presenting someone else’s work or ideas as your own, with or without their consent, by incorporating it into your work without full acknowledgement.
Academic writing cannot be persuasive by your argument alone. You must base your research on various prior studies and clearly indicate the source of the data so that you can secure the credibility of your research.
A reference list allows people who are conducting new research based on your paper or doing similar research to find out what items you have cited.
2. Type of plagiarism
The ethics required for research activities are usually referred to as research ethics. Violations of research ethics include plagiarism, tampering, and forgery. Plagiarism is an act that students are likely to violate while doing their assignments. Plagiarism is presenting someone else’s work or ideas as your own, with or without their consent, by incorporating it into your work without full acknowledgement.
1. When to acknowledge sources
If you use other people’s works e.g. books, journal articles, newspaper articles, websites, blogs, social medias, charts, graphs, and photos, then you should mark the source.
2. What doesn’t need to be cited?: Common knowledge 
Common knowledge does not need to be cited. Common knowledge includes facts that are known by most people and can be found in many sources. However, specific statistical data, which can be changed and disputed, must be cited. In addition, if common knowledge includes expert opinions and interpretations, the source should be noted.
What if you’re confused about whether to write the source or not? Do it! 🙂
 “Academic Integrity at MIT: A Handbook for Students,” 17 07 2019. [Online]. Available: https://integrity.mit.edu/handbook/citing-your-sources/what-common-knowledge.
1. Direct Quotation
A direct quotation is a report of the exact words of an author or speaker and is placed inside quotation marks in a written work. Even if the source is indicated, it can still be plagiarism if it is written without quotation marks(“”). For long quotes(more than 5 lines or 100 words), create a new line and separate paragraphs with left, right, and bottom margins without using quotation marks.
2. Indirect quotation
Indirect quotation refers to summarizing the original text or changing it into your own words. Paraphrasing and summarizing are indirect quotations. Indirect quotations do not use quotation marks, so you must clearly indicate the quoted content. When paraphrasing other people’s writings, it is recommended to indicate as ‘Someone claimed as follows’ and ‘Some people’s views are as follows’.
Re-quoting the contents quoted by others is not recommended in academic writing except in special cases. You can re-quote when you can’t get or interpret the original full-text. In this case, you should indicate that you have re-quoted, and fill out both the bibliographic information of the primary and secondary literature in the reference list.
1. Information needed to write a reference list
Depending on the reference style and the type of material (such as books, articles), the rules of writing reference list are slightly different. However, most of the information required for reference list is similar.
– Book: author name, title of book, publication year, publisher, place of publication, page numbers
– Journal article: author name, title of article, title of journal, publication year, volume, issue, page numbers
2. Reference style
There are several different styles of referencing: APA, MLA, Chicago, etc. Each style has its own rules for properly citing sources. All of the most common styles list every source used in a document at the end, in a reference list or bibliography. The styles differ in format. Each citation style has its own manual to help you figure out exactly how it all works. To find more information on specific citation styles and their corresponding style guide check out the table below.
※ Notes and Bibliography: Humanities, Author-Date: Natural sciences, Social sciences
3. Formatting author information
The method of writing the author’s name is slightly different for each type of reference style. English names are usually written in the order of ‘First name Last name’, and if you want to write the author’s last name in the front, write it in the order of ‘Last Name, First Name’.
Based on the example above, you can write as follows: ‘John F. Kennedy’, ‘Kennedy, John F.’, ‘Kennedy, F. J.’
4. Reference examples (ACS style)
5. Useful items for reference styles
1. Reference management Software: EndNote, Mendeley
The library provides citation tools to help researchers to collect and organize references efficiently and generate bibliography automatically based on the various reference styles such as ACS, APA and IEEE style, etc.
2. Useful website: Citation Generator
Citation Generator is a free citation & bibliography generator. With Citation Generator, you can create citations in MLA, APA, and Chicago.
3. MS Word
MS Word > References tab > Insert Citation > Go to References > Bibliography, and choose a format
1. Renew the due date
▶ More details: Library website > Library Service > Loans·Renewals·More
If a book in need is borrowed checked out, you can make a reservation to get first when it is returned. If you have an overdue item, you cannot reserve other items.
1. Recommend a purchase
You can recommend a purchase if there are materials you’d like to see added to the library’s collections. Depending on the library budget and whether the item is sold out or not, it may be difficult to purchase the requested item.
▶ More details: Library website > Library Service > Recommend a purchase
2. Document Delivery Service(DDS)
Delivers copies of journal article, book chapter scans, academic dissertations from other institutions that are not available in our library. It allows enrolled UNIST student, faculty and staff. Restriction on the use of DDS if you don’t get it at least 3 times or more per year.
▶ More details: Library website > Library Service > Document Delivery Service
3. Inter library Borrowing(ILB)
Interlibrary Borrowing provides short term loans of books from other libraries that are not found in the library’s collection. It allows enrolled UNIST student, faculty and staff. Restriction on the use of DDS if you don’t get it at least 3 times or more per year.
▶ More details: Library website > Library Service > Inter Library Borrowing
UNIST members can access the Library’s electronic resources (e.g. e-Books, journal papers and scholarly databases) remotely via several methods below. This service is offered only to currently enrolled students, faculty members, staff and researchers of UNIST. (Graduates, those on a leave of absence, or retirees are ineligible.)
▶ More details: Library website > E-Resources > Off-Campus Access
UNIST members can use other academic libraries with ‘Access Request Form’. For other service, you should check the visiting the library policy. You should follow the policy when you visit other libraries. (The maximum period you may request is 30 days. If you want to extend access period, you should request again)
▶ More details: Library website > Library Service > Visiting Other Libraries
Research Guides each of which is designed to help you find the most useful resources relevant to your department. It contains useful information and details of recommended resources to support your studies. If you don’t know what to use or where to search to find necessary information for your research, try this guide.
Ask a Librarian